Greek architecture

 Greek Architectural Styles

Greek architecture has known to be the most enduring of all the architectural styles in the world. Sure Roman pulled off some amazing feats of architecture and the Egyptians built some impressive structure. 

Roman marvel has also incorporated Greek form and style.  More than just impressive Greek architecture is timeless. We don’t have to dig in ruins to find Greek architecture, it is all around us. 

One of The main feature of Greek architecture is columns. Greek columns come in three verity or orders, ‘Doric’, ‘Ionic’, and ‘Corinthian’. All three shares the same fluted column or drum, where they differ is at the top which is called the capital of the column.

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Columns were not the only significant feature, there was more to Greek architecture. Greeks built breathtaking temples as well as treasuries, stadiums, and theaters. 

The structure of the Greek temple is a roofed rectangle and surrounded by columns. The roof spanned the gaps between columns to provide a solid surface and rested upon an even plane called an ‘Entablature

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As temple building developed architects added decorations to the entablatures called ‘Meta Peace’, separated from each other by three lines called a ‘Tri Glyph’

However, the developments in bigger temples led to the addition of the second row of columns with a continue decoration called a ‘Frieze’ running along the top. 

The holiest place of the temple was a smaller enclosure called a ‘mouse’ lined with its own columns, and usually housed an idol of the deity for whom the temple was built.

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Perhaps the most famous The Greek temple is the ‘Parthenon’. The Athenians began building this temple to Athena in 447 BC and did not complete it until fifteen years later.  

Ancient Greek Architecture: Dorian, Ionic &Corinthian

Most impressive temples are built by the Athenians atop the highest point in a town called the ‘Acropolis’ literally High city like all Greek city-states

All the elements of a Greek temple are incorporated by The Parthenon like the columns and entablature the pediment full of sculptures

It even had an extra feature the Meta piece depicting a battle centaurs and Lapiths

And with their accompanying frieze depicting in the second row of columns a civic procession of Athenians in exquisite details, and the big idol of Athena inside. 
Yet this description cannot convey the overall effect of this building. One has simply had to be there, standing among the columns we can see the clever tricks of the eye the Greek architects used to make the Parthenon tower imposingly. 

We can see how they tapered the columns at the top to make the building look taller a trick they called ‘entasis’

We can notice that there is not a single right angle or straight line in the entire Parthenon as we examine more closely.  

Yet the mind expects right angles, by taking advantage of the mind’s expectations the Greek architects could make the Parthenon appear even larger than it actually was. The overall effect is one of airy grandeur. 

Greek architecture/partenon/

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Treasuries and stadiums pop up in important Panhellenic sites like Delphi and Olympia. Places where all the Greeks came to worship, meet and compete. 

Stadiums provided a place to watch the competitions. These stadiums were not the massive round affairs that we have today but rather tiered benches along the side of a long track called a ‘Stade’ which is where we get the name ‘stadium’. 

Competitors would race down the stade and back again. Another way the city-states competed that these holy sites were by making lavish donations to the God which they housed in the treasuries, is full of treasure, treasuries lacked the airy openness of the Greek temples. 

They were squat strong houses with opulent facades to declare the glory and hint at the wealth stored within. The form of these treasuries is often mimicked by today’s banks.

Yet perhaps the most distinctly Greek piece of architecture is the Theatre indeed. An archeologistcan identify a Greek colony based on little else

Greeks use their theaters for more than just entertainment. Theaters were both religious and competitive and the Greeks took the theater and music competitions as seriously as their sporty events. 

If the Greeks refined their engineering skills in their temples they mastered it in their theaters.  

Greeks theaters are an engineering marvel vast enough to seat thousands yet precisely designed to carry the slightest sound all the way to the back. 

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At the center of every Greek theater lays a small stone, this is the sweet spot of the theatre. From that spot, even the slightest whisper resonates and spoken words ring like the voice of God. 

No stage, no hall no cathedral can match the acoustic mastery of the Greek theaters. The Greeks left us an architectural legacy that we have failed to improve upon. 

None have matched the Greek balance of elegance and power, grace and gravity in three thousand years. Sure Roman arches are quite useful and their dome defied gravity.

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Medieval castles can be beautiful and gothic cathedrals near take the breath away. Yet the Roman architecture like the Romans themselves was always more practical than artistic. 

Castles are beautiful relics and we don’t build many Gothic cathedrals these days. 

Steel and glass have replaced the stone, and steel and glass have allowed the modern architects to construct marvelous, unimagined by the Greeks.

Yet the very vastness of our skyscrapers does not lend itself to the human experience. They are not built to a human scale. 

You might spy them from afar gape upwards from their base and downwards from their top but you cannot really grasp the entirety of a skyscraper, it is simply too big. 

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So it may seem that we have achieved with steel but the Greeks merely suggested with curves and angles. 

Greek architecture by tailoring itself to human perception somehow contrives to be the grander and tallest tower.

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Pablo Picasso 4. Salvador Dali 5. Frida Kahlo

Indian Artist

1.G.R. Santosh  2. Jai Zharotia 3. Ramkinkar Vaij 4. Dhan Raj Bhagat 5. Somnath Hore 6. Raja Ravi Varma 7. Ratnabali Kant 8. Satish Gujral  9. Anjolie Ela Menon 10. Jagdish Swaminathan   11. Bishamber Khanna  12. Shanti Dave  13. Om Prakash  14. A Ramachandran 15. Arpita Singh 16. Gulam Mohammad Sheikh  17. Biren De  18. Manjit Bawa 19. Gogi Saroj Pal  20. Arpana Caur 21. Vivan Sundaram  22.Amar Nath Sehgal 23. Jatin Das  24.Meera Mukherjee 25. P. V. Janakiram 26. Ved Nayar 27. Mrinalini Mukherjee  28. Lydia Mehta 29. Krishna Reddy 30. Surindra Chadha 31. Anupam Sud 32. Sankho Chaudhuri 33. Gaganendranath Tagore 34. Rabindranath Tagore 35. Nandalal Bose  36. Abanindranath Tagore 37. Jamini Roy 38. Amrita Sher-Gil 39. A. R. Chughtai  40. Zainul Abedin 41. George Keyt 42. M.F. Husain 43. Binod Bihari Mukharji 44. K. G. Subramanyan  45. Krishen Khanna  46. Tyeb Mehta  47. Ram Kumar 48. Pran Nath Mago 49. F.N. Souza 50. B.C.Sanyal 51. K.S.Kulkarni 52. HarKrishan Lal 53. Jahangir Sabavala 54. Sailoz Mukherjee 55. N. S. Bendre  56. K.K.Hebbar 57. Bimal Das Gupta  

Female Artists:

1.Amrita Sher-Gil  2. Arpana Caur  3. Anupam Sud   4. Lydia Mehta   5. Mrinalini Mukherjee   6. Meera Mukherjee   7. Ratnabali Kant

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