Mughal architecture

It is well known that the most famous Islamic monument of the world Taj Mahal is in India. What is not equally well known is that the second oldest mosque in the world is also in India, Kerala. 

In fact, from Tripura in the east till Gujarat in the west and from Kerala in the south till the Kashmir in the north, India has a vast and rich architectural heritage of Islam. 
With the advent of Islam Arab traders became the carriers of a new faith. The architecture under Mughals became more complex in India. 

Mughal emperors like Babur Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and especially Shah Jahan,  were personally interested in literature, art, and architecture. 

The laying out formal gardens placed and divided into four quarters by artificial channels are being described by Babur in his autobiography. 

These gardens were called ‘Char Bagh’ or four gardens because of their symmetrical division into quarters. There were several important architectural innovations during Akbar’s region. 

The tall gateway and central towering dome became an important aspect of the Mughal architecture, which was first found in Humayun’s tomb. 

It was placed in the center of a huge formal ‘char bagh’ and built in the tradition known as eight paradises. 

The building was constructed with red sandstones edged with white marble. The different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together in a grand harmonious synthesis during Shah Jahan’s region. 

A huge amount of construction activity can be witnessed during his region. The ceremonial hall of the public and the private audience called ‘Diwan-E-Khas’ was carefully planned. 

The audience hall was specially constructed to resemble a mosque in his time period. The idea of a king as the representative of God on earth was suggested by these architectural features. 

The capital of Mughals was at Agra a city where the nobility had constructed their homes on the banks of the river ‘The Yamuna’ in the early years of Shah Jahan’s rule. 

Shah Jahan adapted the riverfront garden in the layout of The Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his region. 

In the construction of Taj Mahal, the white marble was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river and the garden was to its south. 

Shah Jahan developed this architectural form as a means to control the axis that nobles have to the river.

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