What is Art — An Introduction (Indian Context)
This sense can be observed in all those routine and particular acts and activities performed by him. Everyone tries to improve or modify it on the basis of knowledge acquired through deep and sensitive observation about his surroundings and nature.
Thus, Art is a natural way to express the ideas and thoughts whatever a person has in his mind. Now, we can say that every person is an artist and he uses so many ways to express his ideas and thoughts through—
I. Visual Arts,
2. Performing Arts, and
3. Literary Arts.
1. Visual Arts:
2. Performing Arts:
3. Literary Arts:
Decorative Arts & Crafts:
Applied or Commercial Arts:
Art and the Culture:
After passing through many difficulties during this long period of time the culture and the socio-human values not only remain to maintain its existence but also have been handed over to the next generations with additional beneficial support.
Now, it is well known that Art is an important part of our culture. If we want to be familiar with the culture of a nation, we shall have to study all the Art forms prevalent there.
It was a fully developed art with six limbs of painting (Shadangas). Besides Vatsyayana, this couplet has been given even in Pandit Yashodhara’s annotation on ‘Jai Mangala’, that is:
1. Roop Bhed:
6. Varnika Bhang:
Origin and Development of Different Forms of Fine Arts in India:
According to a story—having self-engrossed in the charming beauty of nymph Urvashi, Vishnu did not know when he painted her figure on his thigh, and in this way, the very first painting came into existence.
The same assumption is presented as the subject-matter of several volumes. According to the Bhagvatpuran; Chitralekha, a friend of devil Baanasur’s daughter, Usha was skilled in making the picture (drawing/painting) of someone/something exactly alike only on hearing a story about that.
She made several episodic pictures (paintings) of Krishna’s grandson, Aniruddh, to hear his stories.
Having taken shelter in cave houses, the human inscribed the paintings of different human activities and frightful and ferocious wild animals on their walls.
The extensive multitude of the same type wall-painting in the caves of Bhimbetka, near Bhopal is the biggest in India. These wall-paintings have been classified into seven time-zones. Out of them, the oldest fresco is of 10000 B.C.
Distinct geometrical drawings, stronghold, and the use of dark colors are the identity of paintings of that time.
Including the caves of Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta and Bagh, made between 4th to 7th centuries, the frescos painted in temples and monasteries, seem to be saying the story of the climax of wall-painting and Sculptures in India.
Sculptures are given preference in the caves of Ellora whereas the place of the painting is secondary. Here the main delineation has been done only on ceilings and the walls of the pavilions.
In Ellora, the body marshaling and accurate construction of embroidery of both animals and human beings are worth seeing.
Prehistoric Rock Paintings
Remnants of rock paintings have been found on the walls of the caves which are widely spread and situated in several districts of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, and Uttarakhand.
But some of them have great importance to understand the human life of that period. These are as follows:
These paintings belong to late historical, early historical and Neolithic periods. Bulls, elephants, sambhars, gazelles, sheep, goats, horses, and stylized humans have mainly depicted figures of these sites.
Bhimbetka is forty-five kilometers far away in South of Bhopal where about eight hundred rock shelters of stone-age have been discovered, in which there are five hundred bear paintings of stone-age people.
These cave shelters are scattered in an area of ten square kilometers. The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered by an eminent archaeologist, V.S. Wakankar, in 1957-58 A.D. and later on many more sites were also discovered. Wakankar spent several years here to study these paintings.
In spite of these, some animals have also been painted with human as horse and elephant riders, animal fightings, stag, tiger, bison, etc.
On the basis of style, technique and time-periods, the rock art of Bhimbetka have been classified into seven groups as Period—III: Chalcolithic, Period—I: Upper Palaeolithic, Period—II: Mesolithic, Periods—IV and V: Early History Periods—VI and VII: Medieval.
Upper Palaeolithic Period. In this period, the big size figures of animals such as bison, tigers, rhinoceros, boars and stick-like human figures had been delineated on the wall of the caves in green and dark red in which a few are wash paintings and mostly in geometric patterns. The dancers were painted in green and hunters in red.
Early History Period:
At some places in Bhimbetka, a new painting was painted on top of an older one, like that 20 pageants of paintings have been found in some places. Some of the places were considered sacred or special.
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